When her marriage ended, she became so depressed that she needed to seek psychoanalytic therapy for a long time. One of the primary reasons for her move was that several of her friends from Johns Hopkins had also decided to relocate to that university. She conducted a short-term naturalistic study of the mother-infant relationship and published the results. After giving a talk at the Johns Hopkins University, she accepted a position as an associate professor of developmental psychology. Ainsworth had to write a letter to the Dean before the University decided to pay her a fair wage. Ainsworth believed maternal sensitivity was necessary for healthy attachment. Mary Salter Ainsworth, (born December 1, 1913, Glendale, Ohio, United Statesâdied March 21, 1999, Charlottesville, Virginia), American Canadian developmental psychologist known for her contributions to attachment theory. Mary was a trained nurse who chose to stay home to care for her family. Two years later Mary landed a position as a lecturer in Baltimore, Maryland, at John Hopkins. A specialist in online communication and community since 1982, Martha Ainsworth founded Metanoia in 1990 to help dissolve barriers that keep people from getting the help they need. Though the marriage lasted only ten years, her subsequent trip to London for Leonardâs doctoral research proved to be monumental in her career. There she became emotionally involved with a graduate student, Leonard Ainsworth, whom she later married. Since the attachment figure is usually unavailable or rejecting, the child learns that there is little benefit in communicating his or her needs. His goal is to help people improve their lives by understanding how their brains work. In 1950, Leonard decided to go to London to complete his PhD and Mary went with him. The American-Canadian psychologist Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) developed the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to measure mother-child attachment and attachment theorists have used it ever since. She graduated from Developmental Psychology at the University of Toronto and obtained her Ph.D. in 1939. Mary Dinsmore Salter Ainsworth is an American child development psychologist known for her work on emotional attachment of infants to their caregiver using âThe Strange Situationâ experiment along with her work in development of Attachment Theory. In 1950, she married Leonard Ainsworth, who was a World War II veteran and a graduate student in the universityâs psychology department. When she was four years old, her father moved their family to Toronto, Canada where she spent her childhood and her early adulthood. Both parents were very eager to give their daughters a good education. Ainsworth retired reluctantly at the age of 70. Infants were aged between 12 and 18 months. According to O'Connell, both of her parents graduated from Dickenson College. In 1918, her father's manufacturing fiâ¦ While her parents always put a strong emphasis on education, it was William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Lifethat inspired her interest in psychology. Today, Mary Ainsworth is fondly remembered as the âMother of Attachment Theory.â. For example, she had to cope with international war and its aftereffects. Mary Ainsworth Biography. She is also one of the top 100 most frequently cited psychologists in history. They contend that Ainsworthâs theory is overly simplistic since maternal sensitivity cannot adequately account for differences in attachment styles. They believe attachment is best explained by a combination of factors, including the childâs inborn temperament, rather than a single factor as Ainsworth suggests. Bowlby believed that attachment was an all or nothing process. The strange situation test was developed by Ainsworth and her colleagues to evaluate the nature of attachment relationships between infants and their caregivers. Distinguished Contribution Award, Maryland Psychological Association (1973), Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, Virginia Psychological Association (1983), Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, Division 12 (Division of Clinical Psychology), American Psychological Association (APA; 1984), G. Stanley Hall Award, Division 7 (Division of Developmental Psychology), APA (1984), Salmon Lecturer, Salmon Committee on Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene, New York Academy of Medicine (1984), William T. Grant Lecturer in Behavioral Pediatrics, Society for Behavioral Pediatrics (1985), Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development Research, Society for Research in Child Development (1985), Award for Distinguished Professional Contribution to Knowledge, APA (1987), C. Anderson Aldrich Award in Child Development, American Academy of Pediatrics (1987), Distinctive Achievement Award, Virginia Association for Infant Mental Health (1989), Honorary Fellowship, Royal College of Psychiatrists (1989), Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, APA (1989), Elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1992), Distinguished Professional Contribution Award, Division 12 (Division of Clinical Psychology), APA (1994), International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships Distinguished Career Award (1996), Mentor Award, Division 7 (Division of Developmental Psychology), APA (1998), Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology, American Psychological Foundation (APF, 1998). She adopted her husbandâs surname and eventually became known globally as âMary Ainsworth.â. Mary D. Salter Ainsworth was born in Glendale, Ohio in 1913, eldest of three sisters. As Ainsworth got married relatively late in life, she never had any children. Mary joined the Canadian Women's Army Corp during World War II. Newborns often attach to people and have a primary attachment point, which is usually their mother. Some critics have also taken issue with Ainsworthâs âmaternal sensitivity hypothesisâ since studies have found only a weak correlation between maternal sensitivity and attachment. Got married to Leonard Ainsworth. Her parents were both academics at Dickenson College. During her childhood her father would sing to her and tuck her in at night. Salter was a brilliant student who got good grades in school. The reaction of the child helped classify him into one of three categories: secure attachment -the child feels safe with the mother and interacts with the stranger only in the presence of the mother, ambivalent attachment – the child cannot decide whether to forgive the mother for leaving him alone with the stranger and avoidant attachment – the child shows no distress when mother leaves or re-enters and does not interact with the stranger. The research focused on examining what effects interference in the mother and child bond may have on the development of the child. Ainsworth, with her colleagues, was able to prove through âThe Strange Situationâ experiment that there are individual differences in attachment, offering an explanation for these differences. Personal Life. She earned her masterâs degree in 1936. For most of her career, she studied the relationship between infants and their primary caregivers. Mary Ainsworth was born in Glendale, Ohio, in December of 1913 (Biography, 2002). Ainsworth believed attachment styles resulted from the infantâs early interactions with the mother, an idea which she termed the âmaternal sensitivity hypothesis.â A sensitive mother was defined as one who accurately perceives the needs of her child and responds to them promptly and appropriately. date not exact Nov 14, 1954. Biographical Sketch Mary Dinsmore Salter, born on December 1, 1913, in Glendale Ohio, was the eldest daughter of. Her parents both graduated from Dickinson College. Another limitation of Ainsworthâs study is that it cannot be used to determine a general attachment style. This experiment was her most significant contribution to the field of child development and paved the way for future research in the field. For example, observers noted the childâs level of play and exploration in the presence of the mother and stranger, the amount of crying in the absence of the mother, and the ease with which the infant was consoled when in distress. Her father, who possessed a master's degree in history, worked at a manufacturing firm in Cincinnatiand her mother, who was trained as a nurse, was a homemaker. Born in Glendale Ohio December 1913 Mary AInsworth was the oldest of 2 younger sisters. Young children also form numerous attachments to certain family members and friends. In addition to her bachelor's degree, she went on to earn both a master's and doctorate in psychology at the University of Toronto, where she also taught for several years after completing her academic training. In some cases, the parent responds readily to the childâs cues; other times, the child is ignored. Interestingly, going to therapy had a positive impact on her career as she became very interested in psychoanalysis. Research / Accomplishments. Mary Ainsworth, born Mary Salter in 1913, first became interested in psychology after reading William McDougallâs book, Character and the Conduct of Life, when she was 15 years old. Mary Ainsworth, born Mary Salter in 1913, first became interested in psychology after reading William McDougall's book, Character and the Conduct of Life, when she was 15 years old. Mary Ainsworth (Biography) Mary Ainsworth was an American Canadian developmental psychologist. Ainsworth enrolled in honors program in psychology at the University of Torontoin the falâ¦ September 1992; Developmental Psychology 28(5):759-775; DOI: 10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1249. After finishing her studies, she joined the Canadian Womenâs Army Corps and spent four years in the army. Mary Ainsworth was an American Canadian developmental psychologist. In cultures where infants are rarely left alone, for example, they may show high levels of distress and anxiety when separated from their mothers. She also went to Africa and conducted a study there to prove that these effects were universal. When she was 15, she read William McDougall's book Character and the Conduct of Life, which inspired her lifelong interest in psychology. Authors: â¦ Charles and Mary Salter. Even so, Ainsworth made the most of her circumstances. Mary Ainsworth was born in Glendale Ohio. Such a reaction might not be an indicator of insecure attachment as Ainsworthâs theory would suggest, but simply a result of the unfamiliarity of the situation. Her father earned his Master's in History and was transferred to a manufacturing firm in Canada when Ainsworth was five. Based on her research using the strange situation procedure, Ainsworth identified three distinct attachment styles: Children who develop this form of attachment usually have caregivers who are inconsistent in responding to their needs. The University suggested this was to prevent the female teachers from seeing the men when they were informally or inappropriately dressed during their lunch break. She received her bachelorâs degree in 1935. In 1975, Mary Ainsworth left Johns Hopkins in order to join the Department of Psychology at the University of Virginia. Mary Ainsworth - or Mary Salter, as her maiden name was - was born in Glendale, Ohio, in 1913, as the first of three sisters. Your email address will not be published. Mary D. Salter Ainsworth was born in Glendale, Ohio in 1913, eldest of three sisters. Some of her more popular literary works are listed below: Ainsworth was also presented with many awards in recognition of her contributions to the field of psychology. Research / Accomplishments. After spending two years in Uganda, Leonard accepted an offer to become a forensic psychologist in Baltimore and Mary followed him to the United States. 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